Fertility is about the ability to get pregnant.
Infertility affects millions of people of reproductive age worldwide. As per estimates, between 48 million couples and 186 million individuals deal with infertility globally.
There are increased difficulties in egg production, irregular menstrual cycles, increased incidence of miscarriages and pregnancy complications in women with higher Body Mass Index.
In the male reproductive system, problems in the ejection of semen, absence or low levels of sperm, or abnormal shape (morphology) and movement (motility) of the sperm are found to be increased in men with higher BMIs. Almost 40 percent of couples suffering from infertility have issues with the male factors.
It is important to understand that infertility affects both men and women equally. The ability and ease to get pregnant is not completely inherited.
There are multiple environmental, genetic and acquired factors which lead to declining fertility. Check the list below:
- Bad dietary choice
High sugary foods and bakery products, and a lack of probiotics in packaged and preserved stuff alter the balance in the normal vaginal bacterial flora which is very essential in preventing vaginal, cervical and uterine infections. Sperm quality is directly influenced by dietary habits. In women, a poor diet can also result in ovulation dysfunction and delayed periods, which can lead to infertility.
Irregular food timings also play a part in affecting the Body Mass Index (BMI).
- Poor lifestyle
Various factors such as late working hours, graveyard shifts, irregular sleeping time, sleep pattern disturbances, as well as stress and anxiety affect the rhythm of our biological clock. Club that with a sedentary lifestyle and lack of regular exercise, which cause obesity, hormonal disorders, and irregular periods. Obesity damages sperms by causing female: male hormone imbalanced ratio, heat generated by sitting for long hours at work affects the sperms; wearing tight undergarments, and jeans for long hours has a definite detrimental effect. Hot working conditions also add to this.
- Smoking and drinking
Smoking and consumption of alcohol can reduce the sperm count drastically and damages the DNA of the sperm.
Women smokers experience a faster decline in their ovarian reserve, that is the number of follicles reduces, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels fall and may land up in premature menopause.
- Exposure to environmental pollution
Excess usage of plastics has caused damage to various parts of our bodies.
This has caused polycystic ovary syndrome in many women and has also reduced the quantity and quality of sperm. The early onset menarche or precocious puberty before 10 years in girls, is said to be a by-product of exposure to air pollution and food adulteration.